Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests itself as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3–0.7%. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the patient's reported experiences.
A person diagnosed with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech. The latter may range from loss of train of thought, to sentences only loosely connected in meaning, to incoherence known as word salad in severe cases. Social withdrawal, sloppiness of dress and hygiene, and loss of motivation and judgment are all common in schizophrenia. There is often an observable pattern of emotional difficulty, for example lack of responsiveness. Impairment in social cognition is associated with schizophrenia, as are symptoms of paranoia; social isolation commonly occurs. In one uncommon subtype, the person may be largely mute, remain motionless in bizarre postures, or exhibit purposeless agitation, all signs of catatonia.
Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak periods for the onset of schizophrenia, critical years in a young adult's social and vocational development. In 40% of men and 23% of women diagnosed with schizophrenia the condition manifested itself before the age of 19. To minimize the developmental disruption associated with schizophrenia, much work has recently been done to identify and treat the prodromal (pre-onset) phase of the illness, which has been detected up to 30 months before the onset of symptoms. Those who go on to develop schizophrenia may experience transient or self-limiting psychotic symptoms and the non-specific symptoms of social withdrawal, irritability, dysphoria, and clumsiness during the prodromal phase.
Family Counseling In Schizophrenia Patients
1. Teach families about schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects all aspects of the functional. No single cause has been determined, but research suggests that the cause, including genetics, brain structure and chemistry changes, and various factors related to stress.
The symptoms may include hearing voices (hallucinations), mistaken beliefs (delusions), communicating in ways that are difficult to understand, as well as occupational and social function badly.
The symptoms may improve, but may also recur continue for life.
2. Teach the family about
Antipsychotic drugs are used; important for clients to take it as prescribed.
Many side effects occur and can be overcome if reported immediately to healthcare providers. (Provide specific information regarding the client's medication).
Follow up treatment with a therapist or care manager is very important.
3. Teach families about ways to overcome the symptoms of the client
Identify the events that typically disappointing clients and provide extra help as needed.
Note when the client became angry and do the actions to reduce anxiety.
Measures to reduce anxiety include rest, relaxation techniques, a balance between rest and activity, and proper diet.
Write down the symptoms that indicated the client when he was sick, and when this happens encourage clients to contact a health care provider (if he refuses, you should contact your own health care providers).
Client does not approve the statement of hallucinations or delusions; let me know about reality, but do not argue with the client.
Teach families about self-care
Encourage families to talk about their feelings and concerns with health care providers.
Encourage families to want to consider joining a support group or community assistance.