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Irritant and Allergic Contact Dermatitis - Definition and Causes

Irritant and Allergic Contact Dermatitis - Definition and Causes

Contact Dermatitis 

Contact dermatitis is dermatitis caused by contact with a substance / certain materials attached to the skin and cause allergic or irritant reaction. The rash is limited to specific areas and often have strict limits. There are two types of contact dermatitis, namely:

1. Irritant Contact Dermatitis


Irritant contact dermatitis is a contact dermatitis caused by materials that are irritants that can cause tissue damage. Irritant contact dermatitis is divided into two, namely acute irritant contact dermatitis and chronic irritant contact dermatitis (cumulative).
1. Acute Irritant contact dermatitis is an irritant dermatitis that occurs immediately after contact with substances that are toxic irritant strong, for example, concentrated sulfuric acid.
2. Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (Cumulative) is an irritant dermatitis that occurs due to frequent contact with materials that are not so strong irritants, such as soap detergents, antiseptic solution.


The cause of this type of dermatitis are materials that are irritants, such as solvents, detergents, lubricating oils, acid alkali, sawdust, abrasive, a solution of concentrated salts, low molecular weight plastic or hygroscopic chemicals or toxins and animal enzymes.

2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis


Allergic contact dermatitis is a dermatitis or inflammation of the skin that occurs after contact with an allergen through the process of sensitization. Allergic contact dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis due to sensitization to the substance of a diverse causing an inflammatory reaction in the skin for those who experience hypersensitivity to allergens as a result of previous exposure.


The cause of allergic contact dermatitis are allergens, most commonly in the form of chemicals with less weight of 500-1000 Dalton, which is also called a simple chemical. Dermatitis arising influenced by the potential allergen sensitization, the degree of exposure, and the extent of penetration of the skin.
Dermatitis is usually present as acute vesicular dermatitis in a few hours to 72 hours after contact. Course of the disease peaked at 7 to 10 days, and recovered within 2 days in the absence of repeated exposure. The most common reaction is rhus dermatitis, which is an allergic reaction to poison ivy and poison smack. Predisposing factors that cause allergic contact is any circumstance causing skin integrity is compromised, for example static dermatitis.

Seven Things You Can Do To Prevent Alzheimer's Disease

Seven Things You Can Do To Prevent Alzheimer's Disease

How To Prevent Alzheimer's Disease - Alzheimer's Disease is one of the most feared diseases of everyone. This disease can make a person lose mind and thoughts. Alzheimer's also a lot of attacking young children. Actually Alzheimer's is strongly influenced by genetic factors, but health experts observed that there are other factors that can make someone stricken with Alzheimer's. These factors, among others, nutrition, education, diabetes, and mental as well as physical activity.

By knowing how much the effects of the disease, of course, prevention must be done as early as possible. Alzheimer's disease is difficult to treat, but Alzheimer's can still be prevented. How can I prevent Alzheimer's? Here are seven things you can do to prevent Alzheimer's.

1. Consumption of foods containing antioxidants

Foods with antioxidants can prevent dementia and preventing certainly prevent Alzheimer's. Lots of vegetables and fruits that are rich in antioxidants. In addition, tea also contains many antioxidants.

2. Reduce fatty foods

Not only obesity, fat may also trigger changes in brain function for the better or worse. Alzheimer's can also be triggered from fatty foods. Should reduce the consumption of saturated fats because it can make the brain cells which become inefficient. Besides reducing the consumption of fried foods such as fried foods, fried rice, etc.

3. Exercise

Diligent exercise turned out to stimulate the production of good cholesterol. The researchers claim the good cholesterol can serve as an anti-inflammatory for preventing damage to the brain system.

4. Stimulation of brain growth

The brain begins to shrink at the age of 30-40 years. But investigators believe a person can increase the size of the brain by studying diligently. Try to learn new things, expand friendship as stimulation, reading books, browsing the Internet or buying games that stimulate the brain.

5. Reduce Sweet foods

Sweet foods not only cause weight problems. Many sweet meal can also initiate brain damage. Suzanne de La Monte, MD, MPH, a neuropathologist from Brown University with a team doing research. Shows that eating too much sugar can cause insulin resistance that worsen the condition of the brain.

6. Cook your own meals at home

By cooking your own meals, we can ensure itself the materials used are the best and healthier than buying food outside.

7. Keep Your Teeth

Teeth and gums are not clean can be toxic to the brain and tends to make the memory is getting low. Therefore diligent brushing and flossing can help keep your teeth and sharpen memory.

Nursing Care Plan for Hyphema : Acute Pain

Hyphema or blood in the anterior chamber can occur due to blunt trauma (Sidarta, 1998). When the patient is sitting, hyphema will be seen to collect in the bottom of the anterior chamber and hyphema can occupy the entire space anterior chamber. Blood in the aqueous humor fluid can form a layer that is visible. This type of injury does not have to lead to perforation of the eyeball.

Acute pain related to exposure of pain receptors secondary to blunt trauma.

Goal: The pain is reduced

Expected outcomes:
  • The patient demonstrated knowledge of pain control.
  • The patient experience and demonstrate a period of sleep is not disturbed.
  • The patient expresses pain decreased with mild pain scale (1-3).
  • Assess the type, intensity and location of pain.
  • Use pain scale levels to determine the dose of analgesics.
  • Maintain bed rest in an upright position or the position of head of 60ยบ.
  • Perform eye bandage on the affected part.
  • Give a cold compress to reduce pain and swelling.
  • Give sedation to minimize activity.
  • Collaboration: Giving therapy to reduce pain.
  • Give a back rub, a change of position for
  • increase comfort.
  • Help teach relaxation techniques.

Pain and Anxiety - NCP for Uterine Myoma (Fibroid)

Uterine Myoma (Fibroid)

Uterine fibroids are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. The exact cause is unclear. However, fibroids run in families and appear to be partly determined by hormone levels. Symptoms depend on the location and size of the fibroid. Important symptoms include abnormal uterine bleeding, heavy or painful periods, abdominal discomfort or bloating, painful defecation, back ache, urinary frequency or retention, and in some cases, infertility.

Pain (acute / chronic) related to intrauterine tissue damage.

Goal: Pain is reduced.

Expected outcomes:
  • 0-1 pain scale,
  • The client said the pain was reduced until it disappears,
  • Do not feel pain during mobilization,
  • Vital signs within normal limits.
1) Review the pain scale.
R /: Identify needs and appropriate interventions.

2) Encourage clients to use relaxation techniques and pain distraction.
R /: To divert the attention of the mother and the pain that is felt.

3) Motivation: for mobilization as indicated.
R /: Accelerating involution and reduce the pain gradually.

4) Encourage clients to rest.
R /: Reduce pain.

5) Collaboration: providing analgesic.
R /: Loosening the peripheral nervous system to decrease pain.

Anxiety related to lack of knowledge.

Goal: The client is not worried.

Expected outcomes:
  • No anxiety,
  • Knowledge of the client and family to disease increases.

1) Assess the level of knowledge / perceptions of the client and family to the disease.
R /: Ignorance can be the basis of the onset of anxiety.

2) Help clients to identify the causes of anxiety.
R /: Involving the client actively in nursing action is the support that may be useful for clients and increase client self-awareness.

3) Encourage the client to express feelings.
R /: Helps to increase the comfort of the client.

4) Give the physical comfort and security environment on the client.
R /: Giving comfort of the client.

5) Explain the things around curettage to be known by the client and family.
R / Counselling for clients is needed to increase knowledge and build support sisterm families to reduce the anxiety of clients and families.
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