Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood or hyperglycemia.
Diabetes Melllitus is a collection of symptoms that arise in a person caused by the presence of elevated levels of sugar (glucose) blood due to insulin deficiency both absolute and relative terms.
Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
A common complaint of patients with Diabetes Mellitus such as polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia in Diabetes Mellitus is generally no. Instead the patient is often disturbing complaints from complications of chronic degenerative blood vessels and nerves. In Diabetes Mellitus elderly there are pathophysiological changes due to aging process, so that the clinical picture varies from asymptomatic cases to cases with extensive complications. A recurring complaint is the presence of impaired vision due to cataracts, tingling in the limbs and muscle weakness (peripheral neuropathy) and injuries to the legs which are difficult to recover with treatment prevalent.
According Supartondo, the symptoms caused by diabetes mellitus in the elderly are often found are:
- Itching around the body
- Pruritus Vulvae
- Bacterial infections of skin
- Fungal infections in the skin
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Visceral neuropathy
- Neurotrophic ulcer
- Kidney disease
- Peripheral vascular disease
- Coronary disease
- Cerebral vascular disease
Management of Diabetes Mellitus
The main goal of therapy of diabetes mellitus is trying to normalize the activity of insulin and blood glucose levels in an attempt to reduce vascular complications, and neuropathy. Therapeutic purposes in any type of diabetes is to achieve normal blood glucose levels.
There are 5 components in the management of diabetes:
- Therapy (if needed)
Nursing Assessment of Diabetes Mellitus
1. Family Health History
Are there families who suffer from diseases such as client?
2. Patient Medical History and Previous Treatment
How long a client suffering from diabetes, how to handle, gets what type of insulin therapy, how to take her medicine whether regular or not, what is being done to address the client's illness.
3. Activity / Rest:
Tired, weak, difficult Moving / walking, muscle cramps, decreased muscle tone.
Is there a history of hypertension, AMI, claudication, numbness, tingling in the extremities, foot ulcers are healing old, tachycardia, changes in blood pressure
5. Ego integrity
Changes in the pattern of urination (polyuria, nocturia, anuria), diarrhea
7. Food / fluid
Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, do not follow the diet, weight loss, thirst, use of diuretics.
Dizziness, headache, tingling, numbness in the muscle weakness, paresthesias, visual disturbances.
9. Pain / Leisure
Abdomen tense, pain (moderate / severe)
Cough with / without purulent sputum (tergangung presence of infection / no)
Dry skin, itching, skin ulcers.
Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus
- Imbalanced Nutrition : Less Than Body Requirements
- Deficient Fluid Volume
- Impaired skin integrity
- Risk for injury
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