Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Nursing Care Plan for Low Birth Weight - Risk for Infection


Low birth weight babies are babies born with birth weight less than 2500 grams regardless of pregnancy. Birth weight is the weight of a baby who weighed within 1 hour after birth.

The cause of LBW is very complex. LBW can be caused by pregnancy preterm, small for gestational age baby or a combination of both.

Preterm babies are babies born before 37 weeks' gestation. Most preterm infants are not ready to live outside the womb and find it difficult to start breathing, sucking, fight infection and keep the body in order to keep warm.

Low birth weight (LBW) is newborn birth weight less than 2500 grams (up to 2499 grams). Associated with the handling and life expectancy, low birth weight babies are distinguished in:
  • Low birth weight 1500-2500 g birth weight.
  • Very low birth weight, birth weight less than 1500 grams.
  • Extreme low birth weight, birth weight less than 1000 grams.
(Prawirohardjo, 2002)

Immediate complications that can occur in infants of low birth weight among others:
  • Hypothermia.
  • Hypoglycemia.
  • Fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
  • Hyperbilirubinemia.
  • Respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Infection.
  • Intravascular hemorrhage.
  • Apnea of prematurity.
  • Anemia.
Long-term problems that may arise in LBW among others:
  • Developmental disorders.
  • Impaired growth.
  • Visual impairment.
  • Hearing disorders.
  • Chronic lung disease.
  • The increase in the frequency of congenital abnormalities.


Nursing Diagnosis : Risk for infection related to immunological defense ineffective.

Goal: There are no signs of infection.

Expected outcomes:
  • Normal temperature.
  • No signs of infection.
  • Leukocytes 5000-10000.

Nursing Interventions :
  • Assess for signs of infection.
  • Perform insulation another baby suffering from an infection at the discretion of institutions.
  • Before and after handling the baby, do handwashing.
  • Make sure all equipment is in contact with the baby clean and sterile.
  • Prevent personal transmitted infections for no direct contact with the baby.

Rationale:
  • To find early signs of infection.
  • Actions taken to minimize the occurrence of infection wider.
  • To prevent infection.
  • To prevent infection persists in infants.
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