Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing.
A person may have difficulty moving the food from the upper part of the throat into the esophagus because of abnormalities in the throat.
This problem most often occurs in people who have abnormalities in voluntary muscle (skeletal muscle) or nerves, that sufferers:
- Dermatomyositis: Dermatomyositis (DM) is a connective-tissue disease related to polymyositis (PM) that is Characterized by inflammation of the muscles and the skin.
- Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body.
- Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass.
- Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children.
- Pseudobulbar palsy is a medical condition characterised by the inability to control facial movements (such as chewing and speaking) and caused by a variety of neurological disorders.
- Disorders of the brain and spinal cord such as Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).
- People who drank phenothiazines (antipsychotic drugs) could also have trouble swallowing because the drug affects the throat muscles.
At cricopharyngeal incoordination, valve upper esophagus (cricopharyngeal muscle) remain closed or opened by means uncoordinated.
Abnormal functioning valve that allows food repeatedly into the trachea and lungs, which causes chronic lung disease.
When untreated, this condition can lead to the formation of diverticula, a sac formed when layers of the esophagus pushed out and backwards through cricopharyngeal muscle.
Dysphagia is generally a symptom of a disorder or disease in the oropharynx and esophagus.
Clinical manifestations are often found is the sensation of food stuck in the throat or chest when swallowing. Locations sense of heaviness in the chest area, it can show abnormalities in the thoracic esophagus. But if the blockage is in the neck, disorder located in the pharynx or cervical esophagus.
Symptoms can be of two types, namely; oropharyngeal dysphagia and esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia symptom is difficulty trying to swallow, choking or inhaling saliva into the lungs during swallowing, coughing during swallowing, vomiting fluids through the nose, breathe while swallowing food, weak voice, and weight decreased. While the symptoms of esophageal dysphagia is the sensation of pressure in the middle of the chest, sensation of food stuck in the throat or chest, chest pain, painful swallowing, heartburn include chronic, belching, and sore throat.
Dysphagia can also be accompanied by other complaints, such as nausea, vomiting, regurgitation, hematemesis, melena, anorexia, hypersalivation, cough, and rapid weight loss is reduced.
Difficulty swallowing can occur in all age groups, resulting from congenital abnormalities, structural damage, and / or certain medical conditions. Problems in swallowing is a common complaint obtained among the elderly. Therefore, the incidence of dysphagia is higher in the elderly and in patients with stroke. Approximately 51-73% of stroke patients suffering from dysphagia.
Nursing Care Plan for Dysphagia