Saturday, January 7, 2012

Pediatric Nursing Care Plan - Mental Retardation

Pediatric Nursing Care Plan - Mental Retardation Nursing Assessment

Assessment can be done through:
  1. Neuroradiology can find abnormalities in the structure of the cranium, such as classification or increased intracranial pressure.
  2. Echoencephalography can show the tumor and hematoma.
  3. A brain biopsy is only useful on a small number of children retardasii mentally. Not easy for parents to accept the role in brain tissue making even small amounts because they add to the brain damage is inadequate.
  4. Bio-chemical research to determine the metabolic rates of various materials which are known to affect brain tissue if not found in large quantities or small, such as hyperglycemia in preterm neonates, accumulation of glycogen in muscles and neurons, fat deposits in the brain and high levels of phenylalanine.

Or can perform the following assessments:
  • Assessment of physical
  • Assessment for growing up
  • Family history assessment, especially regarding mental retardation and hereditary disorders in which mental retardation is one of the main species.
  • Medical history to obtain evidence of trauma to prenatal, perinatal, postnatal, or physical injury.
  • Prenatal maternal infection (eg, rubella), alcoholism, drug consumption.
  • Inadequate nutrition.
  • Environmental deviations.
  • Psychiatric disorders (eg, Autism).
  • Infections, particularly those involving the brain (eg, meningitis, encephalitis, measles) or high body temperature.
  • Chromosome abnormalities.
  • Assist with diagnostic tests such as: analysts chromosomes, metabolic dysfunction, radiography, tomography, electro ensephalography.
  • Perform or assist with intelligence tests. Stanford Binet, Wechsler intellence, Scale, American Assiciation of Mental Retardation Adaptive Behavior Scale.
  • Observation of an early manifestation of mental retardation:
    • Not responsive to contact.
    • Poor eye contact during breastfeeding.
    • Decrease in spontaneous activity.
    • Decreased awareness of sound vibrations.
    • Sensitive stimuli.
    • Breast-feeding is slow.

Pediatric Nursing Care Plan Mental Retardation Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions 

1. Altered Growth and Development related to damage to cognitive function.

Expected results:
  • Children and families actively involved in infant stimulation program. 
  • Families applying these concepts and continue the child care activities at home. 
  • Children perform activities of daily living at optimal capacity. Family ~ find out about educational programs. 
Nursing interventions :
  • Involve children and families in early infant stimulation program. Rational: to help maximize growth in children.
  • Assess the progress of the child's development with regular intervals, for which detailed records to distinguish subtle changes in function. Rational: so the treatment plan can be repaired as needed.
  • Help families set goals for the child's reality. Rationale: to encourage the successful achievement of goals and self-esteem.
  • Provide positive reinforcement / specific tasks to the behavior of children. Rational: as this can improve motivation and learning.
  • Provide information on adolescent social practices and codes of behavior that is concrete and well defined. Rational: because of the ease and lack of assessment of the child persuasion can make children are at risk of dangerous.

2. Altered family processes related to having a child with mental retardation.

Expected results:
  • Family expresses feelings and concerns about the birth of a child with mental retardation and its implications.
  • Family members indicate acceptance of the child.
  • Family members indicate acceptance of the child.

Nursing Interventions:
  •  Provide information on the family as soon as possible during or after birth. Rational: In order for families able to receive the actual circumstances.
  •  Encourage both parents to be present at the conference giving information. Rational: In order for parents to get lots of information about mental retardation.
  •  Discuss with family members about the benefits of home care, give them a chance to investigate all residential alternatives before making a decision. Rationale: So that they can take the best decision for them and their children.
  • Encourage the family to meet with other families who have the same problem. Rational: so they can receive additional support.
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