Nursing Care Plan

Irritant and Allergic Contact Dermatitis - Definition and Causes

Contact Dermatitis 

Contact dermatitis is dermatitis caused by contact with a substance / certain materials attached to the skin and cause allergic or irritant reaction. The rash is limited to specific areas and often have strict limits. There are two types of contact dermatitis, namely:

1. Irritant Contact Dermatitis


Irritant contact dermatitis is a contact dermatitis caused by materials that are irritants that can cause tissue damage. Irritant contact dermatitis is divided into two, namely acute irritant contact dermatitis and chronic irritant contact dermatitis (cumulative).
1. Acute Irritant contact dermatitis is an irritant dermatitis that occurs immediately after contact with substances that are toxic irritant strong, for example, concentrated sulfuric acid.
2. Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (Cumulative) is an irritant dermatitis that occurs due to frequent contact with materials that are not so strong irritants, such as soap detergents, antiseptic solution.


The cause of this type of dermatitis are materials that are irritants, such as solvents, detergents, lubricating oils, acid alkali, sawdust, abrasive, a solution of concentrated salts, low molecular weight plastic or hygroscopic chemicals or toxins and animal enzymes.

2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis


Allergic contact dermatitis is a dermatitis or inflammation of the skin that occurs after contact with an allergen through the process of sensitization. Allergic contact dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis due to sensitization to the substance of a diverse causing an inflammatory reaction in the skin for those who experience hypersensitivity to allergens as a result of previous exposure.


The cause of allergic contact dermatitis are allergens, most commonly in the form of chemicals with less weight of 500-1000 Dalton, which is also called a simple chemical. Dermatitis arising influenced by the potential allergen sensitization, the degree of exposure, and the extent of penetration of the skin.
Dermatitis is usually present as acute vesicular dermatitis in a few hours to 72 hours after contact. Course of the disease peaked at 7 to 10 days, and recovered within 2 days in the absence of repeated exposure. The most common reaction is rhus dermatitis, which is an allergic reaction to poison ivy and poison smack. Predisposing factors that cause allergic contact is any circumstance causing skin integrity is compromised, for example static dermatitis.

Copyright © Care Plan Nursing. All rights reserved. Template by CB | Published By Kaizen Template | GWFL | KThemes