Pyelonephritis or a kidney infection usually caused by Escherichia Coli, a bacteria type that is found in the large intestine. This infection makes its way from the genital area through the urethra to the bladder, up the ureters and then it reaches the kidneys. Being more common in women than in men.
Pyelonephritis known that if a person has any physical obstruction to the flow of urine, like a kidney stone, an enlarged prostate, or the backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters, it is very likely the risk of pyelonephritis to rise.
Persons with pyelonephritis might experience painful urination, tightly contraction of the abdomen muscles, one or both kidneys may be enlarged and tender, and cystitis symptoms can appear also. Usually, pyelonephritis starts suddenly, with pain in the lower part of the back on either side, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting, but very often, in children these symptoms are slight and difficult to recognize.
Nursing Care Plan for Pyelonephritis
Nursing Diagnosis for Pyelonephritis : Acute Pain related to inflammation and infection of the urethra, bladder and other urinary tract structures.
Evaluation criteria: no pain when urinating, no pain on percussion of the pelvis.
Nursing Interventions and Rational for Pyelonephritis
1. Monitor urine output to changes in color, odor and voiding pattern, input and output every 8 hours and monitor the results of repeated urinalysis.
Rational: To identify indications of progress or deviations from expected results.
2. Record the location, duration, intensity scale (1-10) the spread of pain.
Rational: To help evaluate the obstroksi and cause pain.
3. Provide comfort measures, such as back massage, environment, rest, sleep.
Rational: Increase relaxation, reduce muscle tension.
4. Help or encourage the use of focused relaxation breathing.
Rational: Helps to redirect attention and for muscle relaxation.
5. Give perianal care.
Rational: To prevent contamination of the urethra.
6. If mounted catheter, catheter care provided 2 times per day.
Rational: The catheter provides a way for bacteria to enter the bladder and up into the urinary tract.
1. Consul doctor if: previous urine yellow, ivory, yellow urine, dark orange, hazy or cloudy. Micturition pattern changes, frequent urination in small amounts, feeling the urge to urinate. Persistent pain or increasing pain.
Rational: These findings could signal further tissue damage and needs extensive examination.
2. Give analgesics as needed and evaluate its success.
Rational: Analgesic block the path of pain, thereby reducing pain.
3. Giving antibiotics. Create a variety of drink preparations, including fresh water. Provision of water to 2400 ml / day.
Rational: As a result of urine output makes it easy to urinate often and help flush urinary tract.