Monday, January 9, 2012

Acute Pain Nursing Care Plan for Hepatitis

Hepatitis is characterized by the destruction of a number of liver cells and the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue caused by excessive alcohol drinking, disorders of the gall bladder or pancreas, including medication side effects, and infections.

A person can develop hepatitis if they contract one of the viruses that can cause liver inflammation, or as a result of exposure to substances that can cause hepatitis. There are two ways that can lead to hepatitis: it can either occur as a result of infections or from autoimmune processes.

Hepatitis can be divided into two subgroups:

1. Acute Hepatitis
Acute hepatitis caused by the below in result of inflammation that causes damaging to the liver's normal function and lasting less than six months. People having a weakened immune system and weaken liver, making them more susceptible to be infected by hepatitis.
a) Infectious viral hepatitis such as hepatitis A, B, C, D, E.
b) Inflammation of liver caused by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.
c) Inflammation of liver caused by other bacteria.
d) Medication overdose causing damage to liver tissues and cells such as tranquilizers, chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics and anesthetics.
e) Excessive alcohol drinking.

2. Chronic Hepatitis:
Chronic hepatitis means active, ongoing inflammation of the liver persisting for more than six months. Chronic hepatitis, although much less common than acute hepatitis, can persist for years, even decades. In most people, it is quite mild and does not cause significant liver damage. It may be caused by hepatitis B and C viruses, drugs and excessive alcohol drinking. It can also result in cirrhosis, with an enlarged spleen and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. In some people, continued inflammation slowly damages the liver, eventually resulting in severe scarring of the liver, liver failure and sometimes liver cancer.

In addition to common and everyday body aches that many people experience, Hepatitis patients also suffer from the virus's discomforting symptoms, such as headaches, liver pain and joint pain.

Prior to attempting pain management, it is imperative that you discuss your symptoms and available options with your doctor. A knowledgeable physician will be able to give sound advice in regard to which analgesic may be best for you. The manufacturer, as well as a doctor, can provide appropriate dosing recommendations.

Rather then self-treating pain with over-the-counter medications and possibly harming an already overexerted liver, many Hepatitis patients instead turn to non-medication options. Massage therapy, heat packs, topical pain relievers, and gentle stretching are some safe alternatives for pain management. Getting enough sleep is yet another safe way to aid in pain reduction.

Nursing Diagnosis Nursing Care Plan for Hepatitis

Acute Pain related to swelling of the inflamed liver and portal vein dam

Expected results:

Show signs of physical pain and behavior in pain (not to wince in pain, crying intensity and location)

Nursing Interventions Nursing Care Plan for Hepatitis

a. Collaboration with individuals to determine the method can be used to reduce the intensity of pain

R / pain associated with hepatitis very uncomfortable, because stretching the capsule of the liver, through the approach to individuals who experience pain comfort changes are expected to more effectively reduce the pain.

b. Indicate the client's acceptance of the client's response to pain
  • Acknowledge the pain
  • Listen attentively client's expression of pain

R / clients who have tried to convince health providers that he was experiencing pain

c. Provide accurate information
  • Explain the causes of pain
  • Indicate how long the pain will end, if known

R / clients are prepared to experience the pain through the explanation of the real pain will tend to be more peaceful than clients who receive an explanation less / not an explanation.

d. Discuss with your doctor the use of analgesics that do not contain hepatotoxic effects

R / likelihood of pain already can not be limited to techniques for reducing pain.
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