Typhoid fever is a generalized disease caused by bacteria called E. typhosa. This disease is primarily associated with poor hygiene and is more common in areas with poor sanitation. It is transmitted by water, milk and contaminated food. About 3% of patients who have it become carriers; that is, they harbor the virulent germs in their bodies and contaminate food, water and even articles they touch.
Typhoid Fever is caused by the bacteria species known as Salmonella enterica. These bacteria are transmitted into the victim through contaminated water in most cases of infection. If the water or even food contaminated with fecal wastes from an infected person is consumed by a person, he or she could get infected with the typhoid bacteria found in the feces.
The first symptoms of typhoid are much like influenza. Fever, headache, back-ache, loss of appetite, chilliness with occasional nose-bleed, diarrhea or constipation are the common complaints. When these conditions continue for a length of time typhoid is suspected. The temperature gradually gets higher and higher, often reaching 104 F. The pulse, which usually is accelerated by increased temperature, is exceptionally slow. During the first week or ten days the temperature climbs and holds steady for another equal period, and then gradually falls to normal by the end of the fourth week. The actual diagnosis is made by laboratory study of the blood, urine and stool.
Nursing Interventions for Typhoid Fever
1. Maintain the temperature within normal limits
- Review knowledge of the client and family about hyperthermia.
- Observations of temperature, pulse, blood pressure, respiration.
- Give drink enough
- Provision of anti-pyrexia
- Parenteral fluids (IV) is adequate
- Assess the nutritional status of children.
- Allow the child to eat foods that can be tolerated,
- Plan to improve the nutritional quality at the child's appetite increases.
- Give the food is accompanied by a nutritional supplement to improve the quality of nutritional intake.
- Advised the parents to provide food with a small portion technique, but often.
- Measure weight every day at the same time, and with the same scale.
- Maintaining a child's oral hygiene.
- Explain the importance of adequate intake of nutrients for healing diseases.
- Collaboration for parenteral feeding through feeding through oral if you do not meet the nutritional needs of children
3. Prevent the lack of fluid volume
- Observation of vital signs (body temperature) at least every 4 hours
- Monitor the increasing signs of dehydration: inelastic turgor, sunken fontanel, decreased urine production, mucosal memberan dry, chapped lips
- Observe and record the weight at the same time and with the same scale.
- Monitor the provision of intravenous fluids per hour.
- Reduce the loss of fluid that is not visible (Insensible Water Loss / IWL) to give a cold compress or a tepid sponge.
- Give antibiotics as a program
- Patients should be reassured wash hands with soap after defecation.
- They are known as a career to manage food avoided
- Flies have prevented food and drink descend.
- Patients need a break. Diet software that does not stimulate and low in fiber.
- Provide information about the need conduct activities in accordance with the developmental level and physical condition of children.
- Describe a given therapy: dosage, and side effects.
- Explaining the symptoms of disease recurrence and things to be done to address these symptoms.
- Emphasize the appropriate time to perform the specified control.