Definition of Low Self-Esteem
Low self-esteem is a personal assessment of the results achieved by analyzing how far the behavior of ideal self-fulfilling. (Stuart and Sundeen, 1998: 227).
According to Townsend (1998: 189) low self-esteem is a self-evaluation of sense of self, or the ability to self-negataif either directly or indirectly.
The same opinion was expressed by Carpenito, LJ (1998: 352) that low self-esteem is a condition in which individuals experience negative self-evaluation of self and self.
Of the opinions of the above conclusions can be made, low self-esteem is a negative sense of self, loss of confidence, and failed to achieve the goals expressed directly or indirectly, decreased self-esteem can be situational or chronic.
Causes of Low Self-Esteem
Low self esteem is often caused due to an ineffective individual coping due to the lack of positive feedback, lack of support systems, development of ego regression, a negative feedback loop, dysfunctional family systems, and fixed at the early developmental stage (Towsand, MC, 1998: 366 ).
According to Carpenito, LJ (1998: 82) Ineffective individual coping is a state where an individual having or at risk of experiencing an inability to handle internal or environmental stresos because tidaka dekuat with adequate resources (physical, psychological, behavioral or cognitive).
Meanwhile, according to Towsand, MC (1998: 312) Ineffective individual coping is adaptive behavior disorder and a problem-solving skills in meeting the demands of life and role.
Of the opinions above can be drawn a conclusion, individuals who have ineffective coping will show inability in adjusting or may not solve the problem of the demands of life and facing role.
The existence of an ineffective individual coping is often indicated by the behavior (Carpenito LJ, 1998: 83; Towsand, MC, 1998: 313) as follows:
- Reveals the inability to resolve the issue or ask for help.
- Express feelings of fear and anxiety is prolonged.
- Reveals the inability of roles.
- Changes in community participation.
- Increased dependence.
- Manipulate everyone around them for the purposes of fulfilling their own desires.
- Refuse to follow the rules and regulations.
- Destructive behaviors directed at oneself and others.
- Manipulate verbal and changes in communication patterns.
- Inability to meet basic needs.
- Drug abuse.
Signs and Symptoms of Low Self-Esteem
According to Carpenito, LJ (1998: 352); Keliat, BA (1994: 20); behavior related to low self-esteem, among others:
- Self-criticize themselves or others.
- Sense of self is essential that excess overage.
- Feelings of inadequacy.
- Feel guilty.
- Negative attitude to self-own.
- Pessimistic attitude to life.
- Complaints of physical pain.
- The polarized outlook on life.
- Rejecting self-ability.
- Reduction of self or self-mocking.
- Feelings of anxiety or fear.
- Rationalize away the rejection of positive feedback.
- Disclose a personal failure.
- Inability to set goals.
- Decreased productivity.
- Self-destructive behavior on its own.
- Destructive behavior in others.
- Substance abuse.
- Withdraw from social relationships.
- Facial expressions of shame and guilt.
- Showed signs of depression (difficulty sleeping and eating difficult).
- Seem irritable or easily angered.