Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD), is the co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath. In clinical practice, COPD is defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests. In contrast to asthma, this limitation is poorly reversible and usually gets progressively worse over time. In England, an estimated 842,100 of 50 million people have a diagnosis of COPD; thus, approximately 1 person in 59 is diagnosed with COPD at some point in their lives.
Nursing Care Plan for COPD : Nursing Assessment for COPD
The assessment includes information about past symptoms and manifestations of the disease earlier. Here are some guidance questions to obtain data on the health history of the disease process:
- How long patients have difficulty breathing?
- Does the activity increase dyspnea?
- How much restriction on the patient's activity tolerance?
- When do patients complain most tired and shortness of breath?
- Is eating and sleeping habits are affected?
- History of smoking?
- Drugs that are used every day?
- Drugs used in acute attacks?
- What patients know about the condition and the disease?
- Pulse rate and respiratory patients?
- Is the same breathing without effort?
- Is there a contraction of abdominal muscles during inspiration?
- Is there any use of accessory respiratory muscles during breathing?
- Barrel chest?
- Do look cyanotic?
- Is there a cough?
- Is there peripheral edema?
- Are the neck veins look bigger?
- What color, number and consistency of sputum of patients?
- How, the sensor status of patients?
- Is there an increase stupor? Anxiety?
Nursing Care Plan for COPD : Nursing Diagnosis for COPD
1. Ineffective Airway Clearance related to bronchoconstriction, increased sputum production, ineffective cough, fatigue / decreased energy and bronkopulmonal infection.
2. Ineffective Breathing Pattern related to shortness of breath, mucus, bronchoconstriction and airway irritants.
3. Impaired Gas Exchange related to ventilation perfusion inequality.
4. Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between supply with oxygen demand.
5. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements related to anorexia.
6. Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to discomfort, the setting position.
7. Self-Care Deficit Bathing / Hygiene, Dressing / Grooming, Feeding, toileting related secondary fatigue due to increased respiratory effort and the insufficiency of ventilation and oxygenation.
8. Anxiety related to threat to self-concept, the threat of death, unmet needs.
9. Ineffective Individual Coping related to lack of socialization, anxiety, depression, low activity levels and inability to work.
10. Knowledge Deficit related to lack of information, do not know the source of information.
Source : http://nandanursingdiagnosis.blogspot.com/2011/05/nursing-diagnosis-for-copd.html